Home Blog / History

Did You Know The Structure Of History Of India ?

Structure Of History Of India

Introduction



India timeline takes us on a journey of the history of subcontinental. Right from the emergence of homo Erectus to the progress of modern homo sapiens. Homo sepia and homo Erectus are the terminologies for the evolutionary version of humans.
It shows how the history of India lead from ancient India, which includes Bangladesh and Pakistan, to the free and divided India.
But before you study the Indian timeline, you should know the structure of the History of India. It vast and a little bit complex but if you get it once learning of history becomes easier, interesting as well as gives you a better understanding.
Here, I'll talk about the whole structure of the history of Indian timeline.

Basically, We can classify Indian History from Homo Eractus to the 21st century into four major categories. They are
  1.  Pre historical Era
  2. Ancient History
  3. Classical Period
  4. Medieval History
  5. Modern History
Let study further to know various important event happens in which era and let know the whole structure of Indian History.

Pre Historical Era ( Untill. c. 3300 BCE)

It is generally said that history has two eyes. One is chronologically and other is Geographically
The history of human settlement in India goes back to prehistorical time. Scientists have proved that all humans evolved from the Africa Continent.
About 1.5 million years ago some hominins ( our monkey precedes) escaped from Africa and somehow traveled to East Asia, scientists called the Homo Erectus.

Our history began with them.No written records founded for the prehistorical period. However, plenty of archeological remains are found in diff parts of India to reconstruct the history of this period.
Oldest hominins fossil of homo Erectus found on the Narmada valley of India.
Pre historical has major two parts :
  1. Paleolithic Or Old stone age
  2. Mesolithic Or Middle stone age
  3. Neolithic Or New stone age
  4. Chalcolithic Age

Paleolithic Or Old stone age ( Before 10000 BCE - 10000 BCE)

The period before 10000 BCE assigned as Paleolithic Age. Paleolithic sites are widely found in various parts of the Indian subcontinent. Some of them are
  • The Soan Valley and the Potwar plateau on the North West Hills
  • The Shiwalik Hills on the North East.
  • The Bhimbteka in Madhya Pradesh and so on.
Several rock shelter and caves made by paleolithic people, they rarely live on house-made by leave.
Important Features of this period were:
  • Food was obtained by hunting and gathering.edible plants.
  • They used stone tools, hand-size and flack off large pebble for hunting animals.
  • They knew sign language for communication which helps them during hunting.
  • They illustrated things by rock paintings.
Few old stone age painting has been found on Bhimteka.

Mesolithic Or Middle age ( 10000 - 6000 BCE)

Mesolithic roughly falls around from 10000 BCE to 6000 BCE. It is a transitional phase between the paleolithic and Neolithic age. Mesolithic remains can be found on Langanj in Gujrat and Adamgarh in Madhya Pradesh.
Important Features of the Mesolithic Age are
  • The hunting-gathering pattern of life continued.
  • But hunting shifted from big animals to small animals and fishing.
  • Different stone tools were found.
  • Usually, tool and artifact size was not more than 5 centimeter.
  • Use of bow and arrow began in this period.
  • People were tending to settle for a longer period in an area.
  • Domestication, Horticulture and primitive culture started.

Neolithic or New Stone Age (6000 BCE - 4000 BCE )

It is approx. dated back from 6000 BCE to 4000 BCE. The remarkable progress of human settlement seen in this period. Neolithic remains can be found in Kashmir valley, Chirand in Bihar.\
The Characteristics feature of this period were :
  • Great improvement in manufacturing technology.
  • Polished micro stone axes were used.
  • The practice of improved agriculture wheat, barley, rice, millet cultivated
  • Domestication of birds, cattle, goat, sheep was prevalent.
  •  Manufacturing of pottery started. Pottery used for cooking and storing food grains and large urns used for coffins.
  • Mudbrick houses were built instead of grass huts.
  • Manufacturing of cloths also started.

Chalcolithic Age (4000 BCE-3000BCE)

The Neolithic period is followed by Chalcolithic age. Here Human learned new technology of extracting, smelting of iron ores and crafted metal artifact which were the most important development in human civilization.
But the use of micro stone continued to be important items. People started to travel long distances to extract metal ores.

Ancient History (3300 BCE - 550 CE)

Ancient History is also referred to as Metal age. It is the real starting point of Indian history which is dynamic and spanning to the beginning of human civilization. It begins with a mysterious history long the Indus river and the south part of India.
Available evidence suggests that the use of Iron, Bronze, Copper, and metal are prevalent and helps us to frame the structure of History of India.
Further, we see how Metals frame our Ancient history.

Bronze Age - Indus Valley Civilization (3300 BCE-1700 BCE)

Indus Valley Civilization is one of the oldest civilization in the world. It is known that the world has four Oldest Civilisation.
  • Indus Valley Civilization: Northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India
  • Mesopotamia Civilization: The land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Modern Mesopotamia is known as Iraq
  • Egypt Civilization: Modern Egypt
  • Chinese Civilization: The yellow river Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization is considered the first civilization of the world Also known as Harappan civilization. It was located in the west part of South Asia, today it is in Pakistan, Afganistan, and West India. 
Silent feature of the Civilization :
  • The use of bronze was extensive.
  • They had the best town planning.
  • There was great progress in all spheres of economic activity such as agriculture, industry, craft and trade.
  • They have a mature social life. Distinct appearance in the fashion of men and women. 
  •  They have a high degree of workmanship. Figures of man, woman and birds made of terra cotta.
  • The Harappan script had fully deciphered.
  • They have religious views.
  • They developed burial rituals.

Iron Age - Vedic Period ( 1700BCE-600BCE)

Vedic Period was named after Vedas, the early literature oh Hindu people. It was the Indo Aryan culture of northwest India. Vedic is synonyms with Hinduism which is another name or religious and spiritual thought that evolved from the Vedas.
Although other parts of India had a distinct cultural identity during that time. The Vedic period last from 1700 BCE to 600 BCE contributed to the foundation of various religious and cultural aspects of Indian Subcontinent.

Vedic Period may also be divided  into following part:
  1. Early Vedic or Rig Vedic Period (1700BCE-1000BCE)
  2. Late Vedic period (1000BCE-600BCE)

Second Urbanisation (800 BCE-200BCE)

It period between 800 BCE-200BCE seen the various rise and fall of cultural integration and also rise of the various umpire in north India and the south part of India.
After 500 BCE new urban settlement arises at the Gange Plain, especially in The central Ganga plain. that why it is called second Urbanisation.
With the new settlement, in the central Ganga plain various regional empires arise. Let's know more about the second urbanization.

Rise of Jainism and Buddhism (6th century BCE)

During 6BCE-7BCE increasing urbanization in India led to the rise of new ascetic and Sramana movement which challenges the orthodoxy of rituals. Mahavira (c. 549–477 BCE), the proponent of Jainism, and Gautama Buddha (c. 563–483 BCE), founder of Buddhism were the most prominent icons of this movement.


Mahajanpads (600BCE-300BCE)

At the beginning of the 6th century BCE, north India consisted of large number of independent kingdoms. Some of them had a monarchial form of government, while some others were republic.
There was total of sixteen great kingdoms that were mentioned in Budhha and Jain literature. And this was called Mahajanpads.
But in case of time, the small and weak kingdoms submitted to a stronger ruler or gradually got eliminated. In the mid 6th century BCE, only four kingdoms remained - Vatsa, Avanti, Koshala and Maghadh survived.

Mauryan Empire (322BCE-185BCE)

Of all the empire of north India, Magadh emerged powerful and prosperous. It became the nerve center of the political activity of north India. In this powerful empire, Mauryan dynasty founded a new era of history. For the First time, political unity was achieved.
The empire was established by Chandragupt Maurya.

Sangam Period (3rdcentury BCE-4th century BCE)

Sangam Period is a contemporary period to the Mauryan period in South India. During this period Tamil literature flourished.
During this period, three major dynasties ruled in parts of south India. They are collectively known as Three crowned kings of tamilkan
  • Chera Dynasty
  • Chola Dynasty
  • Pandyan Dynasty

Post-Mauryan Period (200BCE - 320CE)

After the death of Ashoka, his successors were not able to keep the vast Mauryan empire intact. The province started declaring their independence. The kingdom region slipped out of control of the Mauryan. Due to this several new kingdoms and dynasties arise.

Sungas Dynasty (187 BCE-78BCE)

The Shungas originated from Magadha and controlled areas of the central and eastern Indian subcontinent from around 187 to 78 BCE. The founder of the Sunga dynasty was Pushyamitra Sunga,
who was the commander-in-chief under the Mauryas. He assassinated the last Mauryan ruler and usurped the throne.
The rule of the Sungas was important because they defended the Gangetic valley from foreign invasions. In the cultural sphere, the Sungas revived Brahmanism and horse sacrifice. They also promoted the growth of Vaishnavism and the Sanskrit language.

Satvahanas Dynasty (1st century BCE- 3rd century CE)

In the Deccan, the Satavahanas established their independent rule after the decline of the Mauryas. Their rule lasted for about 450 years. They were also known as the Andhras.
The Satvahans are known for their patronage of Hinduism and Buddhism, which resulted in Buddhist monuments from Ellora (a UNESCO World Heritage Site) to Amaravati. They were one of the first Indian states to issue coins struck with their rulers embossed.

Kushana Dynasty (1st century BCE - 3rd century CE)

The Kushanas were a branch of the Yuchi tribe, whose original home was central Asia. They first came to Bactria displacing the Sakas. Then they gradually moved to the Kabul valley and seized the Gandhara region. The founder of the Kushana dynasty was Kujula Kadphises or Kadphises I.
They played an important role in the establishment of Buddhism in India and its spread to Central Asia and China.


Classical Period (320CE-650 CE)

This period majorly contains the event of the Gupta Dynasty in North India and Vatakatak in the southern part of India. This period highly considered for cultural creativity, especially in literature, architecture, sculpture, and paintings.

Gupta Dynasty (320CE-650CE)

After the Kushanas, the Guptas were the most important dynasty. The Gupta period has been described as the Golden Age of Indian history. The first famous king of the Gupta dynasty was Ghatotkacha's son Chandragupta I. He married Kumaradevi, the daughter of the chief of the Licchavis. This marriage was a turning point in the life of Chandragupta I. He got Pataliputra in dowry from the Lichhavis. From Pataliputra, he laid the foundation of his empire and started conquering many neighboring states with the help of the Licchavis. He ruled over Magadha (Bihar), Prayaga and Saketa (east Uttar Pradesh). His kingdom extended from the river Ganges to Allahabad. Chandragupta I also got the title of Maharajadhiraja (King of Kings).

Science and political administration reached new heights during the Gupta era. Strong trade ties also made the region an important cultural center and established it as a base.

Vakataka Dynasty (375 CE-450CE)

They were the most important successors of the Satavahanas in the Deccan, contemporaneous with the Guptas in northern India and succeeded by the Vishnukundina dynasty.
The Vakataka Empire originated from the Deccan in the mid-third century CE. Their state is believed to have extended from the southern edges of Malwa and Gujarat in the north to the Tungabhadra River in the south.
It was a great age of temple building. The Vakataks introduced the art of excavating temples from the rock. In fact, the Dravidian style of temple architecture began with the Pallava rule.

Medieval History (550CE-1818CE)

Medieval HIstory is the middle section of India History. In this period majorly all event happen in form of foreign attacks and show us how foreigners attacked and settled in our mainland.
We can generally classify Medieval History into Three parts
  1. Early Medieval History
  2. Late Medieval History
  3. Post-Medieval History

Early Medieval History (550CE-1100CE)

In early Medieval history majorly Besides the Vakatakas, the Western Chalukyas and the Rashtrakutas in the Deccan constitute important political forces. Both these kingdoms had their rivals in the far south, namely the Pallavas and later the Cholas. Their period has also been important in the history of India for their cultural contributions contains the south India history this include following dynasty
  • Chalukya
  • Rashtrakutas
  • Chola
  • Rajputs

Chalukya (600CE-1200CE)

The Western Chalukyas ruled over an extensive area in the Deccan for about two centuries after which the Rashtrakutas became powerful. The family of Western Chalukyas had its offshoots like the Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi and the Chalukyas of Kalyani. Pulakesin I was the founder of the Chalukya dynasty. He established a small kingdom with Vatapi or Badami as its capital.


Rashtrakutas (6th century CE - 10th century CE)

The Rashtrakutas were of Kannada origin and the Kannada language was their mother tongue. Dantidurga was the founder of the Rashtrakuta dynasty. He defeated the Gurjaras and captured Malwa from them. Then he annexed the Chalukya kingdom by defeating Kirtivarman II. Thus, the Rashtrakutas became a paramount power in the Deccan.
His successor Krishna I was also a great conqueror. He defeated the Gangas and the Eastern Chalukyas of Vengi. He built the magnificent rock-cut monolithic Kailasa temple at Ellora. The next important king of this dynasty was Govinda III. He achieved victories over north Indian kingdoms

Imperial Cholas (8th century CE - 12th century CE)

After the decline of the Sangam period, the Cholas became feudatories in Uraiyur. They became prominent in the ninth century and established an empire comprising the major portion of South India. Their capital was Tanjore. They also extended their sway in Sri Lanka and the Malay Peninsula. Therefore, they are called as the Imperial Cholas. Thousands of inscriptions found in the temples provide detailed information regarding the administration, society, economy, and culture of the Chola period.


Rajputas (7th century CE - 11 century CE)

The dominance of Rajputs began from the seventh and eighth centuries and lasted till the Muslim conquest in the twelfth century. Even after that, many Rajput states continued to survive for a long time. In the period of Muslim aggression, the Rajputs were the main defenders of the Hindu religion and culture.
There are several theories about the origin of Rajputs. They were considered as the descendants of the foreign invaders and the Indian Kshatriyas. The foreign invaders were Indianized and absorbed into Indian society. Many legends of Rajputs support this theory. Therefore, it can be said that diverse elements constitute in the shaping of the Rajput clan. They became homogenous by constant intermarriage and by adopting common customs. They made war as their chief occupation. However, trade and agriculture also prospered. The Arab travelers refer to the prosperity of the land and the great trade of the cities. They built strong forts.


Late Medieval History (1200 CE- 1526 CE)

The late medieval contain the event of invasion of Muslim central Asian clans and form the Delhi sultanate empire by growing, capturing the various parts of India and built the military technology for the sultanas. And also happens some events of the Vijay Nagar Empire.

Delhi Sulnate (1206CE-1526CE)

The Muslim invasions into India had ultimately resulted in the establishment of Delhi Sultanate which existed from A.D. 1206 to 1526. Five different dynasties

  • Slave Dynasty
  • Khilji Dynasty
  • Tuglaq Dynasty
  • Sayyid Dynasty
  • Lodis Dynasty
Not only they extended their rule over North India, but also they penetrated into the Deccan and South India. Their rule in India resulted in far-reaching changes in society, administration and cultural life

Slave Dynasty (1206 CE - 1290 CE)

The Slave dynasty was also called the Mamluk dynasty. Mamluk was the Quranic term for slave. The Slave dynasty ruled Delhi from A.D. 1206 to 1290. In fact, three dynasties were established during
this period. They were

  1.  Qutbi dynasty (1206-1211) founded by Qutbuddin Aibak.
  2.  First Ilbari dynasty (1211- 1266) founded by Iltutmi  
  3.  Second Ilbari dynasty (1266-1290) founded by Balban.

Khilji Dynasty (1290 CE - 1330 CE )

The advent of the Khalji dynasty marked the zenith of Muslimimperialism in India. The founder of the Khalji dynasty was Jalaluddin Khalji. He was seventy years old when he came to power. He was
generous and lenient. In 1296 Alauddin Khalji took an expedition to Devagiri and returned to Kara.
During the reception there, Alauddin Khalji treacherously murdered his father-in-law Jalaluddin Khalji and usurped the throne of Delhi.
 

Tughlaq Dynasty (1320 CE-1414 CE)

The Tughlaqs were a Muslim family of Turkic origin. The dynasty reached its zenith point between AD 1330 and 1335 when Muhammad Bin Tughlaq led the military campaign. Its rule was marked by torture, cruelty, and rebellions, resulting in the rapid disintegration of the dynasty's territorial reach after 1335 AD.

Sayyids Dynasty (1414CE-1451CE)

This dynasty ruled for very short terms and only known for making a conspiracy.

Lodis Dynasty (1451 CE- 1526CE)


The Lodhi Dynasty under the Delhi Sultanate was the first Afghan Pashtun Dynasty in India who ruled from AD 1451 to 1526. This dynasty replaced the Sayyid Dynasty and it was a period of reforms in administration, strengthening the army, gearing up the machinery of land revenue administration, expansion, and improvement of the cultivation and welfare of the people.

Vijaynagar Empire (1336CE-1672CE)


The empire rose to prominence as a culmination of attempts by the south Indian powers to ward off Islamic invasions by the end of the 13th century. It lasted until 1646, although its power declined after a major military defeat in 1565 by the combined armies of the Deccan sultanates. The empire is named after its capital city of Vijayanagara, whose ruins surround present day Hampi, now a World Heritage Site in Karnataka, India.
The Vijayanagara Emperors were tolerant of all religions and sects, as writings by foreign visitors show.

Post-Medieval History (1526 CE - 1818 CE)

Bhakti Movement

Bhakti movement is considered as the growth of theist devotion that emerged in the Hinduism religion.
An important landmark in the cultural history of medieval India was the silent revolution in society brought about by a galaxy of socio-religious reformers, a revolution known as the Bhakti Movement. This movement was responsible for many rites and rituals associated with the worship of God by Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs of the Indian subcontinent. For example, Kirtan at a Hindu Temple, Qawaali at a Dargah (by Muslims), and singing of Gurbani at a Gurdwara are all derived from the Bhakti movement of medieval India (800-1700).

Sikhism

Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru, and the ten successive Sikh gurus. After the death of the tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, the Sikh scripture, Guru Granth Sahib, became the literal embodiment of the eternal, impersonal Guru, where the scripture's word serves as the spiritual guide for Sikhs.

Mughal (1526-1818CE)

Mughals were the foreign invaders, who see India as their own homeland, unlike others who only thought for only capture India and make us slaves. The integrity during this period is very high.
The Mughal period saw important social and economic developments. During this period, many European travelers and traders came to India and their accounts contain a mine of information
about the socio-economic conditions of India. In general, they described the wealth and prosperity of India and also the luxurious life of the aristocratic classes. On the other side, they also mentioned
the poverty and suffering of ordinary people such as peasants and artisans.
  

Marathas (1674CE-1818CE)

The Maratha Empire, also known as the Maratha Confederacy, dominated a large portion of India during the 17th and 18th century. The Maratha Empire formally began with the rise of Chhatrapati Shivaji in 1674. The Maratha Empire brought an end to the chaos that prevailed in the Deccan Plateau, as a result of the expansion and advent of the Mughal Empire into south India. Hence, the Maratha Empire is largely credited with ending the Mughal rule in India and is often seen as a true Indian power, as it dominated the Indian subcontinent during the 17th and 18th centuries. At its peak, the Maratha Empire extended from Peshawar in the north to Thanjavur in the south.

Modern History ( 1818 onwards)

Basically, modern history starts with the advent of Europeans. But many historians believe that modern history started from 1818 CE after the declination of Mughals. If we look at how the European Countries' advent in India and founded their trade and political power helps us to understand the structure of the history of India. 

Advent of Europeans

The advent of European following countries included
  • Portuguese
  • Dutch
  • England 
  • France

Portuguese

It was the Portuguese who first discovered a direct sea route to India. Portuguese sailor Vasco da Gama arrived at Calicut an important seaport located on South-West India on May 20, 1498 AD. King Zamorin, the local rule received him and bestowed on him certain privileges. After staying in India for a period of three months Vasco da Gama returned with a rich cargo which he sold in the European market at an exorbitant price- 60 times the cost of his voyage.

Dutch

The people of Holland (present Netherlands) are called the Dutch. Next to the Portuguese, the Dutch set their feet in India. Historically the Dutch have been experts in sea trade. In 1602, the United East India Company of the Netherlands was formed and given permission by the Dutch government to trade in the East Indies including India.

England


The English Association of the Merchant Adventurers’ was established in 1599 to carry on trade with the east. This company, which is popular as East India Company obtained a Royal Charter with a trade monopoly in the east from Queen Elizabeth on 31 December 1600. By 1608, the first factory at Surat was decided to be opened by the British. By 1619, they estab­lished factories at Agra, Ahmedabad, and Broach. Even before these factories, one factory was established at Machilipatnam in 1611, one at Armagaon in 1625, and obtained Madras in 1639 and constructed Fort St. George. They acquired Bombay Island in 1668 and fortified it soon and it becomes the headquarters of the west in 1687.

French 

The last European people to arrive in India were the French. The French East India Company was formed in 1664 AD during the reign of King Louis XIV to trade with India. In 1668 AD the French established their first factory at Surat and in 1669 AD established another French factory at Masaulipatam. In 1673 AD the Mughal Subedar of Bengal allowed the French to set up a township at Chandernagore.

Rebellion of 1857

The 1857 Revolt sowed the seeds of Indian nationalism, which lay dormant in the subconscious of the Indian people. It started the movement which was a continuous struggle against the British rule till 1947. Hence, the nature, character, and causes of this Great Revolt of 1857 should be studied to understand the subsequent events.
In the aftermath, all power was transferred from the British East India Company to the British Crown, which began to administer most of India as several provinces. The Crown controlled the Company's lands directly and had considerable indirect influence over the rest of India, which consisted of the Princely states ruled by local royal families

Indian National Movement (1885CE-1947CE)

India's movement toward independence occurred in stages prompted by the inflexibility of the British and, in many instances, their violent responses to peaceful protests. Many attribute the Indian Revolt of 1857 (known by the British as the Sepoy Mutiny) as the first battle in the struggle for Indian independence.

It contains three phases
  1. Phase I (1885CE-1905CE)
  2. Phase II (1906CE-1916CE)
  3. Phase III(1907CE-1947CE)

India after Independence ( After 1947CE)

India after Independence include the various phase of Indian governmental policies, law, and order, economic reforms and International Relations.

I hope you understand the Main structure of the history of India. It will help you to understand the history easily and helps to remember the various events that occur in history.
Thank you

अगर पोस्ट पसंद आया हो तो कमेंट बॉक्स में मुझे जरूर बताये।  और शेयर करे और इसमें  गलती दिखी तो उसे भी बताये मै  उसे सुधारने  की कोशिश करूंगा। 


आपके पास मेरे लिए कोई सुझाव या टिप्स है तो मुझे कमेंट बॉक्स या कॉन्टैक्ट पेज पर ज़रूर बताये।  

सुक्रिया



Baca juga :

No comments:

Post a comment

to Top